Definition : Declaration of co-ownership - Initial declaration of co-ownership

Notarial deed, published in the land register, its main purpose is to subject an immovable to the divided co-ownership regime by the method of concomitant declarations of co-ownership. The private portions generally consist of the lots intended to receive a building. Each lot is subject, once the building erected, to a concomitant declaration of co-ownership. The common portions consist of the land and other equipment intended for all the co-owners of the project, such as traffic lanes, outdoor parking or the swimming pool.

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La déclaration de copropriété est le document maître d'un syndicat de copropriétaires. Elle définit les fondements mêmes d'une copropriété, et indique le code de vie à y adopter.
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La déclaration de copropriété représente le contrat social d'un syndicat de copropriétaires. Qu'il s'agisse du règlement de l'immeuble, de l'état descriptif des fractions ou de l'acte constitutif, l'ensemble de l'oeuvre doit être scrupuleusement respecté.
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La copropriété par phases permet au promoteur d’étaler la conception d’un projet immobilier sur plusieurs années, et de moduler le rythme des travaux de construction selon l’évolution des ventes d’unités. Cette formule implique que le promoteur, plutôt que d’établir une fois pour toutes la copropriété qu’il veut créer, procède par étapes.
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The intervention of the notary is very important when purchasing an apartment in a divided co-ownership. A professional, member of the “Chambre des notaires du Québec” (Québec Chamber of Notaries), he is also a public officer. As such, the notary has without limitation the mission of executing deeds to which the parties wish or are required to endow with authenticity (such as  a declaration of co-ownership). Even though it is preferable that he should get involved at the outset of a transaction, this legal adviser usually gets involved  after the signing of the offer to purchase or of the preliminary contract. The notary, in his capacity of public officer: Warrants the validity of the deed of sale; Is bound to act objectively and to give legal advice to all the parties (equally to the purchaser and the vendor); Is bound to a duty of information to the parties, which means he should give the parties relevant advice and information in relation with the deeds signed before him.
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