- Declaration of co-ownership : Declaration of co-ownership
Definition : Declaration of co-ownership
A notarial act en minute, published in the Land Register, the main purpose of which is to subject the immovable to the regime of divided co-ownership. The declaration of co-ownership determines :
- The rules for the operation and the organization of the co-ownership (private and common portions, allocation of expenses, etc.)
- The rights and obligations of the co-owners and of the syndicate.
It is divided in three sections: the constituting act of the co-ownership, the By-Laws of the immovable, and the Description of the fractions.
Question : Lors de l’achat de mon condo, suis-je en droit d’exiger de mon vendeur une copie certifiée conforme (copie authentique) de la déclaration de copropriété?
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The declaration of co-ownership is a convention that organizes and regulates the collective life of the co-owners and occupants of the building. This Convention defines in particular their rights and obligations. It is usually developed unilaterally by the developer or owner of the building. Legally, the declaration of co-ownership is a real contract of adhesion, because any new co-owner is obliged to adhere to it.
This is a key legal document. Its publication gives rise to the co-ownership and the syndicate. Look at the different aspects of the declaration of co-ownership.
In co-ownership, the rights of withdrawal and of preemption may disrupt the course of a real estate transaction. In my practice, I had to intervene a number of times before proceeding with a sale, often to the astonishment (and sometimes displeasure!) of the parties, to safeguard their rights.
The declaration of co-ownership includes the set of rules ensuring the efficient organization of a co-ownership. Its knowledge by the members of the board of directors and by each co-owner is essential to the proper operation of the co-ownership. For a promisor-buyer, the declaration of co-ownership contains a wealth of useful information regarding the conditions of use and enjoyment of the private and common portions. Hence the necessity of reading this document before buying, to avoid unpleasant surprises, especially as to the use one intends to make of his lot.
The intervention of the notary is very important when purchasing an apartment in a divided co-ownership. A professional, member of the “Chambre des notaires du Québec” (Québec Chamber of Notaries), he is also a public officer. As such, the notary has without limitation the mission of executing deeds to which the parties wish or are required to endow with authenticity (such as a declaration of co-ownership). Even though it is preferable that he should get involved at the outset of a transaction, this legal adviser usually gets involved after the signing of the offer to purchase or of the preliminary contract.
The notary, in his capacity of public officer:
Warrants the validity of the deed of sale;
Is bound to act objectively and to give legal advice to all the parties (equally to the purchaser and the vendor);
Is bound to a duty of information to the parties, which means he should give the parties relevant advice and information in relation with the deeds signed before him.
December 11th 2015 - The main duty of the board of directors in a condominium is to manage the Syndicate’s business. This means first to ensure the maintenance and conservation of the building, secondly to see to it that everyone respects every disposition of the declaration of co-ownership.
At the signing of the deed of sale before the notary, an authentic copy of the declaration of co-ownership must be remitted to you.In order to maintain the stability of this contractual framework, every purchaser undertakes, by signing his deed of purchase, to abide to the declaration of co-ownership and the by-laws of the immovable adopted and filed in the register of the co-ownership.
La déclaration de copropriété doit être respectée par tous les copropriétaires. Quiconque ne la respecte pas s’expose à un recours judiciaire fondé sur l’article 1080 du Code civil du Québec (C.c.Q.) et pouvant être intenté soit par un copropriétaire soit par le syndicat.
The law provides that a syndicate must keep a register at the disposal of the co-owners. In most cases the declarations of co-ownership list the items it contains. This register is the memory of the syndicate, and consequently, its archives. In is thus invaluable. Much more than a mere witness of the sound management of an immovable, it is its prime instrument. Therefore, preservation and access are the hallmarks of this register.