Definition : Encroachment

The use without color of right by a co-owner of a parcel of adjoining land, owned by a different  owner without his consent, by a construction or the enlargement of a construction beyond the limits of his property. An encroachment can be regularized by  means of signing a servitude, the partial alienation of the parcel being the object of the encroachment, in favor of the party responsible for the said construction, or by prescription and even by the removal so the said construction.

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The declaration of co-ownership is a contract that orchestrates and regulates the lives of co-owners, lessees and other occupants of the immovable. It represents the guideline for everyone who lives in the immovable.The declaration of co-ownership provides, systematically, that it is up to the board of directors to have its content abided to. However, it happens that people break the rules, in particular by a non-compliant use of a private portion with regard to the destination of the immovable, a noise nuisance and work carried out in violation of the by the laws of the immovable. Other examples illustrate the problems that can occur in the co-ownership, such as an encroachment on a common portion or the improper installation of a floor covering. Anyone who does not abide to the declaration of co-ownership is liable, inter alia, to a legal recourse based on article 1080 of the Civil Code of Quebec . This action may be brought by a co-owner or the syndicate.
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Section 1719 of the Civil code of Québec states that the seller must provide the buyer with a copy of the deed of purchase, as well as with a copy of the owner history and of the certificate of location he has on hand. Prepared by a land surveyor, the certificate of location is part of the property titles the seller must supply.  In the interest of the buyer, the certificate of location should clearly describe the current condition of all private portions (for instance, an apartment, a parking or storage space, or even land). Should the seller not have a certificate of location on hand (and unless the promise to purchase states otherwise), they will need to have one prepared, at their own expense. 
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When the work of a co-owner has an impact on the common portions, the latter must obtain authorization from the general meeting of co-owners to have it undertaken, even if the work is carried out in his private portion. This authorization generally requires a double majority vote. Failure to comply with this rule could result in a co-owner being ordered to restore the premises to their original state or even to pay damages.
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The Law imposes upon the vendor the obligation to warrant the immovable sold. Except if provided otherwise, the sale of an immovable is made with a basic warranty known as the legal warranty. Under Article 1716 of the Civil Code of Quebec (C.C.Q.), the vendor is bound to warrant the ownership (1723 C.C.Q.) and the quality of the property against hidden defects (1726 C.C.Q.)
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