RSS condolegal 2019-05-26T19:01:36+0000 Zend_Feed_Writer http://en.condolegal.com/ condolegal contact@condolegal.com http://www.condolegal.com <![CDATA[BILL 16 FOR BETTER GOVERNANCE OF QUEBEC CO-OWNERSHIPS AS BEEN INTRODUCED]]> We all thought Bill 401 had died on the agenda, but as a phoenix it is rising from its ashes. The Quebec Government has basically kept its main components and drafted a new version, namely Bill 16, which aims, inter alia, to provide divided co ownership with an improved framework by the means of amendments to several articles of the Civil Code of Quebec.

In doing so, the Quebec government is consistent with its election promises. Several leading legal advisers are of the view that the government is thereby showing its concern of the state of repair and condition of immovables held in co-ownership.

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2019-04-03T19:30:00+0000 2019-04-06T17:00:00+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/your-rights/news/2579-BILL-16-FOR-BETTER-GOVERNANCE-OF-QUEBEC-CO-OWNERSHIPS-AS-BEEN-INTRODUCED We all thought Bill 401 had died on the agenda, but as a phoenix it is rising from its ashes. The Quebec Government has basically kept its main components and drafted a new version, namely Bill 16, which aims, inter alia, to provide divided co ownership with an improved framework by the means of amendments to several articles of the Civil Code of Quebec. In doing so, the Quebec government is consistent with its election promises. Several leading legal advisers are of the view that the government is thereby showing its concern of the state of repair and condition of immovables held in co-ownership.
<![CDATA[INSURANCE LAW REFORM: DESCRIPTION OF PRIVATE PORTIONS]]> For co-ownerships created before October 31, 2017, it is essential to adopt one or several descriptions of the private portions of reference before June 13, 2020. In the absence of one or several descriptions made available to the co-owners by this deadline, the co-ownership will be deemed having no improvement as of October 31, 2017.

This could lead to situations of insurance insufficiency, since components that were previously insured by the co-owners, will then automatically fall under the coverage of the Syndicate's insurance. In addition, this could lead to unfair situations for co-owners, by having insurance paid by some for the improvements of others. To the extent that the preparation of this description(s) will require a consultation and a vote of the co-owners gathered in a general meeting, you have only a few months left to attend to this matter at your next annual general meeting to be held in the summer or in the fall of 2019. At the 2020 general meeting, it will already be too late!

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2019-03-26T17:42:00+0000 2019-03-29T17:03:30+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/insurance/article/2572-INSURANCE-LAW-REFORM-DESCRIPTION-OF-PRIVATE-PORTIONS For co-ownerships created before October 31, 2017, it is essential to adopt one or several descriptions of the private portions of reference before June 13, 2020. In the absence of one or several descriptions made available to the co-owners by this deadline, the co-ownership will be deemed having no improvement as of October 31, 2017. This could lead to situations of insurance insufficiency, since components that were previously insured by the co-owners, will then automatically fall under the coverage of the Syndicate's insurance. In addition, this could lead to unfair situations for co-owners, by having insurance paid by some for the improvements of others. To the extent that the preparation of this description(s) will require a consultation and a vote of the co-owners gathered in a general meeting, you have only a few months left to attend to this matter at your next annual general meeting to be held in the summer or in the fall of 2019. At the 2020 general meeting, it will already be too late!
<![CDATA[The 24 Legal Hours: an innovative tool for real estate brokers ]]> March 21st, 2019 — A brand new service, the 24 Legal Hours, is now provided to real estate brokers who conduct business in the field of co-ownership. Because dealing with the peculiarities of condominiums may at time prove tiresome, consulting with an expert team of lawyers may help bring up practical solutions and strategies.

Relying on the know-how of experienced attorneys and notaries, de Grandpré Joli-Coeur knows better than anyone that a transaction involving a condominium may hide several traps one would be wise to avoid. Considering that in the context of a transaction many prospective buyers and sellers will entrust their needs to a real estate broker, nothing should be left to chance.

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2019-03-21T13:41:00+0000 2019-03-29T10:40:18+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/purchase/news/2570-the-24-legal-hours-an-innovative-tool-for-real-estate-brokers March 21st, 2019 — A brand new service, the 24 Legal Hours, is now provided to real estate brokers who conduct business in the field of co-ownership. Because dealing with the peculiarities of condominiums may at time prove tiresome, consulting with an expert team of lawyers may help bring up practical solutions and strategies. Relying on the know-how of experienced attorneys and notaries, de Grandpré Joli-Coeur knows better than anyone that a transaction involving a condominium may hide several traps one would be wise to avoid. Considering that in the context of a transaction many prospective buyers and sellers will entrust their needs to a real estate broker, nothing should be left to chance.
<![CDATA[Condominiums are taking over Montréal’s landscape ]]>

March 20th, 2019 — Co-ownership is becoming more and more popular in Montréal. Whether one focuses on the island itself or on its South or North Shores, it is clear that the condominium market is in full bloom.

In fact, Yanick Desnoyers, as director of the Market Assessment department of the Quebec Federation of Real Estate Boards (QFREB), recently pointed out that “In 2018, transactions involving a condominium accounted for 53% of the real estate market, whereas they reached a mere 19% in 2000.”

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2019-03-20T13:28:00+0000 2019-03-29T13:53:44+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/purchase/news/2569-condominiums-are-taking-over-Montréal’s-landscape March 20th, 2019 — Co-ownership is becoming more and more popular in Montréal. Whether one focuses on the island itself or on its South or North Shores, it is clear that the condominium market is in full bloom. In fact, Yanick Desnoyers, as director of the Market Assessment department of the Quebec Federation of Real Estate Boards (QFREB), recently pointed out that “In 2018, transactions involving a condominium accounted for 53% of the real estate market, whereas they reached a mere 19% in 2000.”
<![CDATA[Told to take down a flag that failed to comply with a by-law ]]> March 14, 2019 — A Canadian flag is causing some turmoil within a condominium community located in Carligwood Mall (Ottawa). Because the flag (which was Installed over a co-owner’s garage door) appears to go against a by-law included in the declaration of co-ownership, the board of directors demands that it be taken down.

The owner of the flag, Major Michael Mitchell, does not intend to obey such a request. Quite to the contrary, he maintains that one is perfectly justified to display a Canadian flag as a sign of nationalism. In fact, it would seem that the flag proudly waved for eight months before the board of directors raised the issue with Mr. Mitchell.

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2019-03-14T15:14:00+0000 2019-03-29T19:49:16+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/syndicate/news/2566-Told-to-take-down-a-flag-that-failed-to-comply-with-a-by-law March 14, 2019 — A Canadian flag is causing some turmoil within a condominium community located in Carligwood Mall (Ottawa). Because the flag (which was Installed over a co-owner’s garage door) appears to go against a by-law included in the declaration of co-ownership, the board of directors demands that it be taken down. The owner of the flag, Major Michael Mitchell, does not intend to obey such a request. Quite to the contrary, he maintains that one is perfectly justified to display a Canadian flag as a sign of nationalism. In fact, it would seem that the flag proudly waved for eight months before the board of directors raised the issue with Mr. Mitchell.
<![CDATA[Speed-Condo Signature : Recouvrement des frais de condo impayés]]> *This conference is only available in french*

20 mars - Proposé par le RGCQ, le Speed-Condo Signature est similaire au Speed-condo. Cette activité de formation permet d’approfondir des sujets précis à l’aide d’un panel d’experts. Sous forme de conférence, des thématiques plus complexes seront abordées. Une connaissance de base de la copropriété est nécessaire pour tirer profit de cette séance.

L'activité abordera le thème du recouvrement des frais de condos impayés. Que faire face à un copropriétaire qui refuse de payer? Que sont les recours possibles et les implications de chacun? Obtenez toutes les réponses à vos questions lors de cette activité de formation.

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2019-03-11T14:36:00+0000 2019-03-11T16:41:14+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/condolegal/events/2558-speed-condo-signature-recouvrement-frais-condo *This conference is only available in french* 20 mars - Proposé par le RGCQ, le Speed-Condo Signature est similaire au Speed-condo. Cette activité de formation permet d’approfondir des sujets précis à l’aide d’un panel d’experts. Sous forme de conférence, des thématiques plus complexes seront abordées. Une connaissance de base de la copropriété est nécessaire pour tirer profit de cette séance. L'activité abordera le thème du recouvrement des frais de condos impayés. Que faire face à un copropriétaire qui refuse de payer? Que sont les recours possibles et les implications de chacun? Obtenez toutes les réponses à vos questions lors de cette activité de formation.
<![CDATA[Enforcing the declaration of co-ownership]]> The declaration of co-ownership is a contract that orchestrates and regulates the lives of co-owners, lessees and other occupants of the immovable. It represents the guideline for everyone who lives in the immovable.The declaration of co-ownership provides, systematically, that it is up to the board of directors to have its content abided to. However, it happens that people break the rules, in particular by a non-compliant use of a private portion with regard to the destination of the immovable, a noise nuisance and work carried out in violation of the by the laws of the immovable. Other examples illustrate the problems that can occur in the co-ownership, such as an encroachment on a common portion or the improper installation of a floor covering. Anyone who does not abide to the declaration of co-ownership is liable, inter alia, to a legal recourse based on article 1080 of the Civil Code of Quebec . This action may be brought by a co-owner or the syndicate.

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2019-03-10T15:18:00+0000 2019-05-17T15:53:06+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/your-rights/factsheets/694-enforcing-the-declaration-of-co-ownership The declaration of co-ownership is a contract that orchestrates and regulates the lives of co-owners, lessees and other occupants of the immovable. It represents the guideline for everyone who lives in the immovable.The declaration of co-ownership provides, systematically, that it is up to the board of directors to have its content abided to. However, it happens that people break the rules, in particular by a non-compliant use of a private portion with regard to the destination of the immovable, a noise nuisance and work carried out in violation of the by the laws of the immovable. Other examples illustrate the problems that can occur in the co-ownership, such as an encroachment on a common portion or the improper installation of a floor covering. Anyone who does not abide to the declaration of co-ownership is liable, inter alia, to a legal recourse based on article 1080 of the Civil Code of Quebec . This action may be brought by a co-owner or the syndicate.
<![CDATA[Chaos in condominium insurance]]> January 22, 2019 - Confusion reigns in Quebec co-ownership insurance. This state of affairs has been summarized by journalist Stéphanie Grammond, of the daily La Presse, in a recent article on with Bill 141’s adoption. Its new provisions have created" chaos in condo insurance" because its interpretation does not always reflect reality.

The current problem is daunting, as insurers, adjusters and also property and casualty insurance brokers have diverging views regarding 141’s specific content, so that syndicates of co-owners' and co-owners themselves end up being victimised.

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2019-01-23T01:48:00+0000 2019-01-25T21:49:47+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/insurance/news/2536-chaos-in-condominium-insurance January 22, 2019 - Confusion reigns in Quebec co-ownership insurance. This state of affairs has been summarized by journalist Stéphanie Grammond, of the daily La Presse, in a recent article on with Bill 141’s adoption. Its new provisions have created" chaos in condo insurance" because its interpretation does not always reflect reality. The current problem is daunting, as insurers, adjusters and also property and casualty insurance brokers have diverging views regarding 141’s specific content, so that syndicates of co-owners' and co-owners themselves end up being victimised.
<![CDATA[Collection of unpaid common expenses]]>

The failure to pay general or special common expenses (condo fees), as well as those relating to the contingency fund, is one of the most contentious co-ownership’s issues. It is the duty of the board of directors of the syndicate of co-owners to collect them, unless this task has been delegated to the condo manager.

When a co-owner's contributions have been in arrears for more than three months, the law provides, ex officio, that he automatically loses his right to vote at the general meetings of the co-owners. He is also exposed to legal recourses, so that the syndicate can recover the amounts owing. A review of the options in such cases.

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2019-01-20T15:31:00+0000 2019-04-14T16:27:16+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/your-rights/factsheets/692-Collection-of-unpaid-common-expenses The failure to pay general or special common expenses (condo fees), as well as those relating to the contingency fund, is one of the most contentious co-ownership’s issues. It is the duty of the board of directors of the syndicate of co-owners to collect them, unless this task has been delegated to the condo manager. When a co-owner's contributions have been in arrears for more than three months, the law provides, ex officio, that he automatically loses his right to vote at the general meetings of the co-owners. He is also exposed to legal recourses, so that the syndicate can recover the amounts owing. A review of the options in such cases.
<![CDATA[Recourse against a co-owner liable for a loss]]>

A bathtub or a washing machine that overflows into the apartment below, a hot water tank that conks out and spills down six floors: losses involving the civil liability of a co-owner are many co-ownerships. And they are expensive! This is why the amount of insurance premiums and deductibles have increased significantly in recent years.

Worse still, some insurers no longer want to insure co-ownerships, because of a loss ratio that has become out of control. This situation is directly related to the insurer of the syndicate, which is almost always called upon to cover a loss, when damage has been caused to the common and private portions. Thus the question of who is responsible arises. It is also necessary to know the applicable law to the owner at fault. Other considerations affect both the insurer of the syndicate and those of the co-owners concerned, to determine who will pay what?

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2019-01-20T04:55:00+0000 2019-03-26T12:07:22+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/your-rights/factsheets/816-recourse-against-a-co-owner-liable-for-a-loss A bathtub or a washing machine that overflows into the apartment below, a hot water tank that conks out and spills down six floors: losses involving the civil liability of a co-owner are many co-ownerships. And they are expensive! This is why the amount of insurance premiums and deductibles have increased significantly in recent years. Worse still, some insurers no longer want to insure co-ownerships, because of a loss ratio that has become out of control. This situation is directly related to the insurer of the syndicate, which is almost always called upon to cover a loss, when damage has been caused to the common and private portions. Thus the question of who is responsible arises. It is also necessary to know the applicable law to the owner at fault. Other considerations affect both the insurer of the syndicate and those of the co-owners concerned, to determine who will pay what?
<![CDATA[$ 15,000 award to a co-owner victim of noise]]>

January 14, 2019 - Quebec case law was further enhanced by a recent decision concerning co-ownership noise. The judgment, which deals with sensitive neighborhood annoyances issues was rendered by Honorable Luc Huppé, Court of Quebec Judge, sitting in the Small Claims Division.

This case established that a co-owners-lessor can be held responsible for neighborhood annoyances caused by their lessee. And that if they do not address the problem, they could be sued for damages and ordered to pay substantial amounts.

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2019-01-14T21:13:00+0000 2019-01-20T15:43:15+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/your-rights/news/2534-$ 15,000-award-to-a-co-owner-victim-of-noise January 14, 2019 - Quebec case law was further enhanced by a recent decision concerning co-ownership noise. The judgment, which deals with sensitive neighborhood annoyances issues was rendered by Honorable Luc Huppé, Court of Quebec Judge, sitting in the Small Claims Division. This case established that a co-owners-lessor can be held responsible for neighborhood annoyances caused by their lessee. And that if they do not address the problem, they could be sued for damages and ordered to pay substantial amounts.
<![CDATA[Contract of employment (termination)]]>

The qualification of the contractual relationship between the syndicate and the condo manager is of paramount importance since the rules of termination are not the same, whether it is a contract for services or a contract of employment. In most cases, a person working on a regular basis for the co-ownership is deemed to be an employee governed by a "contract of employment", and not an independent contractor. Article 2085 of the Civil Code of Québec defines the "contract of employment" as a contract, verbal or written, by which a person, the employee, undertakes, for a limited time and for remuneration, to do work under the direction or control of another person, the employer.

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2019-01-09T12:39:00+0000 2019-01-16T17:04:31+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/management/factsheets/under-sheets/2529-contract-of-employment-termination The qualification of the contractual relationship between the syndicate and the condo manager is of paramount importance since the rules of termination are not the same, whether it is a contract for services or a contract of employment. In most cases, a person working on a regular basis for the co-ownership is deemed to be an employee governed by a "contract of employment", and not an independent contractor. Article 2085 of the Civil Code of Québec defines the "contract of employment" as a contract, verbal or written, by which a person, the employee, undertakes, for a limited time and for remuneration, to do work under the direction or control of another person, the employer.
<![CDATA[Contract for services (termination) ]]>

The manager bound to a syndicate by a contract for services does not have the same relationship with his client as the one who has the status of a salaried employee. That being said, regardless of the nature of the relationship between the parties, it is advisable to specify the contract’s terms and conditions, including its obligations and its possible renewal. This will prevent misunderstandings and possible litigation.

Terminating the contractual relationship between the manager and the syndicate of co-owners requires, at all times, an evaluation of the legal and contractual parameters. A review of the various scenarios illustrating the expiration or resiliation of a contract for services.

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2019-01-06T18:31:00+0000 2019-01-23T22:45:21+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/management/factsheets/under-sheets/2526-Contract-for-services-termination The manager bound to a syndicate by a contract for services does not have the same relationship with his client as the one who has the status of a salaried employee. That being said, regardless of the nature of the relationship between the parties, it is advisable to specify the contract’s terms and conditions, including its obligations and its possible renewal. This will prevent misunderstandings and possible litigation. Terminating the contractual relationship between the manager and the syndicate of co-owners requires, at all times, an evaluation of the legal and contractual parameters. A review of the various scenarios illustrating the expiration or resiliation of a contract for services.
<![CDATA[Ethics and code of conduct]]> The manager usually plays a key role in a co-ownership. Similarly to the board of directors, his duty is to preserve the immovable of which he is responsible. His appointment eases the director’s tasks, without the manager being substituted in their function. The board members will thus be better able to exercise their decision-making powers. That being said, managing a co-ownership is not always an easy task. It is in the best interest of directors to ensure that the manager assumes his mission with dignity, loyalty, diligence and honesty. To this end, the board of directors would be well advised to implement a code of conduct in which professional ethics are addressed, namely, without limitation, compliance with laws and regulations, transparency, confidentiality, conflicts of interest and, of course, discipline.

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2018-12-24T16:49:00+0000 2019-02-02T15:49:02+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/management/factsheets/under-sheets/2524-ethics-code-of-conduct The manager usually plays a key role in a co-ownership. Similarly to the board of directors, his duty is to preserve the immovable of which he is responsible. His appointment eases the director’s tasks, without the manager being substituted in their function. The board members will thus be better able to exercise their decision-making powers. That being said, managing a co-ownership is not always an easy task. It is in the best interest of directors to ensure that the manager assumes his mission with dignity, loyalty, diligence and honesty. To this end, the board of directors would be well advised to implement a code of conduct in which professional ethics are addressed, namely, without limitation, compliance with laws and regulations, transparency, confidentiality, conflicts of interest and, of course, discipline.
<![CDATA[Bill 141: its implementation predicated upon regulations]]> September 9, 2018 - The Ministère des finances is embarking on an important milestone in the implementation of Bill 141, which introduces several legislative amendments to co-ownership insurance. In fact, to be really in force, it will require the adoption of several regulations. This will allow better defining its impact, by the means of a broad consultation that has recently been launched.

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2018-09-09T04:44:00+0000 2018-09-18T22:52:57+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/insurance/news/2470-Bill-141-implementation-regulations September 9, 2018 - The Ministère des finances is embarking on an important milestone in the implementation of Bill 141, which introduces several legislative amendments to co-ownership insurance. In fact, to be really in force, it will require the adoption of several regulations. This will allow better defining its impact, by the means of a broad consultation that has recently been launched.
<![CDATA[PAVILLON CONDO IN MONTREAL HOME EXPO]]> Montreal Home Expo will open its doors from February 7th to February 10th. As usual Pavillon condo will also welcome up to 105 000 visitors. Like every year we will offer free legal consultations and several lectures about co-ownership will be offered by our partner, the RGCQ.

Take your pick amongst dozens of companies specialized in condominiums to help you plan repair or construction works, or simply to improve services for your homeowners association. More than 600 exhibitors will be there to answer your every need.

To know more about Montreal Home Expo, visit their website and to know more about the lectures visit the RGCQ website.

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2018-08-03T15:47:00+0000 2019-01-09T15:29:58+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/condolegal/events/2461-PAVILLON-CONDO-IN-MONTREAL-HOME-EXPO Montreal Home Expo will open its doors from February 7th to February 10th. As usual Pavillon condo will also welcome up to 105 000 visitors. Like every year we will offer free legal consultations and several lectures about co-ownership will be offered by our partner, the RGCQ. Take your pick amongst dozens of companies specialized in condominiums to help you plan repair or construction works, or simply to improve services for your homeowners association. More than 600 exhibitors will be there to answer your every need. To know more about Montreal Home Expo, visit their website and to know more about the lectures visit the RGCQ website.
<![CDATA[Condo corporations rushing to prohibit pot smoking before legalization ]]> July 25, 2018 - The cannabis prohibition in co-ownerships is presently a hot topic. Lawyer Maxime St-Onge, from de Grandpré Joli-Cœur, gave an overview thereof this morning on Global News.

While several Canadian co-owners syndicates are racing against the clock to ban pot in their immovable, the young lawyer confirms that Montreal is no exception as cannabis decriminalization will officially come into effect on October 7th.

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2018-07-25T19:45:00+0000 2018-08-22T16:39:46+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/syndicate/news/2445-condo-corporations-rushing-prohibit-pot-smoking-before-legalization July 25, 2018 - The cannabis prohibition in co-ownerships is presently a hot topic. Lawyer Maxime St-Onge, from de Grandpré Joli-Cœur, gave an overview thereof this morning on Global News. While several Canadian co-owners syndicates are racing against the clock to ban pot in their immovable, the young lawyer confirms that Montreal is no exception as cannabis decriminalization will officially come into effect on October 7th.
<![CDATA[OACIQ introduces a mandatory form for condo transactions]]> July 4, 2018 - Condo buyers dealing with a real estate broker now have at their disposal a new tool to better protect their transaction. The coming into force of the mandatory form Declarations of the seller upon the immovable - Divided co-ownership, on July 1, 2018, will allow purchasers to obtain crucial information to govern them during their purchase.

Prepared by “l’Organisme d’autorèglementation du courtage immobilier du Québec [the Quebec organization for the self-regulation of real estate brokerage (OACIQ)]," it allows the seller to declare the current state of his property", to protect him from a possible recourse. As for the buyer, this document provides the necessary details so that he can "make an informed decision," states OACIQ.

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2018-07-04T15:23:00+0000 2018-09-16T09:41:50+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/purchase/news/2438-oaciq-introduces-a-mandatory-form-for-condo-transactions July 4, 2018 - Condo buyers dealing with a real estate broker now have at their disposal a new tool to better protect their transaction. The coming into force of the mandatory form Declarations of the seller upon the immovable - Divided co-ownership, on July 1, 2018, will allow purchasers to obtain crucial information to govern them during their purchase. Prepared by “l’Organisme d’autorèglementation du courtage immobilier du Québec [the Quebec organization for the self-regulation of real estate brokerage (OACIQ)]," it allows the seller to declare the current state of his property", to protect him from a possible recourse. As for the buyer, this document provides the necessary details so that he can "make an informed decision," states OACIQ.
<![CDATA[Can common portions be sold? ]]> arbres.quebecQuestion: During our last general meeting of co-owners, the president of the board of directors suggested to sell a parcel of land located in the backyard of our immovable. According to him, the amount that we could receive would allow to replenish the contingency fund. Can you tell me if that is possible? If this is the case, I would like to know who has the authority to make this decision.

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2018-07-02T07:08:00+0000 2018-08-24T18:00:23+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/syndicate/questions-answers/2437-can-common-portions-be-sold?- Question: During our last general meeting of co-owners, the president of the board of directors suggested to sell a parcel of land located in the backyard of our immovable. According to him, the amount that we could receive would allow to replenish the contingency fund. Can you tell me if that is possible? If this is the case, I would like to know who has the authority to make this decision.
<![CDATA[Parking : common portions ]]>

Despite increased congestion and gridlock in major urban centers, many co-owners still favor the automobile as their means of transportation. The densification of cities accentuates chronic congestion, which contributes to scarce parking spots on the streets. The situation is not much better in the suburbs, since it is generally forbidden to park (at night) in the winter time. Access to parking is therefore an important issue for many co-owners and buyers.

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2018-06-19T23:56:00+0000 2018-06-29T18:36:13+0000 http://en.condolegal.com/management/factsheets/under-sheets/2434-parking-_-common-portions- Despite increased congestion and gridlock in major urban centers, many co-owners still favor the automobile as their means of transportation. The densification of cities accentuates chronic congestion, which contributes to scarce parking spots on the streets. The situation is not much better in the suburbs, since it is generally forbidden to park (at night) in the winter time. Access to parking is therefore an important issue for many co-owners and buyers.