Definition : Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms

Québec law, the object of which is to guarantee to any person the legal protection of his fundamental rights. This applies to, in particular, the respect for the dignity of human beings, the equality of women and men, the recognition of the rights and freedoms to which they are entitled, and the protection against any type of discrimination.

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Cohabiting with others in a building in divided co-ownership implies the right to respect for the private life. This right is guaranteed by article 3 of the Civil Code of Québec and  the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms. Its informational dimension is legally protected by  the Act respecting the protection of personal information in the private sector (PHIPA). With the assent  of Bill 64 on September 22, 2022, new rules for the use and dissemination of personal information have subject (and will subject) the world of co-ownership since September 22, 2022, while other rules will come into force in September 2023 and 2024.
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Je suis membre d’un syndicat de copropriétaires dans l’Outaouais comptant 80 copropriétaires dont 65% sont anglophones. Les rencontres de l’assemblée des copropriétaires et celles du conseil d’administration sont toujours en anglais. Lorsqu’une question est posée en français on y fait généralement abstraction et on la passe sous silence. Question : Au Québec les rencontres d’assemblée des copropriétaires ne doivent-elles pas être tenues en français en vertu de la Charte de la langue française? Quel est mon recours pour que les réunions soient tenues en français, à la limite bilingues?
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Harassment in co-ownership can take many forms and develop in a wide variety of contexts. When occupants of a building with very different temperaments share a place to live, it happens that the spirits heat up to the point of making cohabitation impossible. A co-owner who infringes on his neighbor's privacy and interferes in his privacy can be particularly irritating and even embarrassing. If he comes to photograph him when he walks through the common portions, monitors all his comings and goings or installs a surveillance camera in the corridor pointing towards his front door, then there is an illegitimate invasion of his privacy. Such serious conduct can be considered psychological harassment, in that it seriously harms the person who is the victim.
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Our Board of Directors considers entrusting part of the administrative management of the syndicate to an external manager. In order to reduce the risk of fraud, a criminal history certificate is included in our selection criteria. Also, proof of liability insurance from the manager is verified so that it is sufficient in the event of errors or omissions on his part. Another selection criterion is a manager who is a member of the Ordre des administrateurs agréés (ADMA). Question: Should directors only appoint a condominium manager with no criminal record and membership in ADMA?
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When our Board of directors communicates by email, with all the co-owners, this is done so that we do not see the email addresses of the co-owners. As a result, no one can see the response of others, so we cannot discuss the subject of communication. I find this quite contradictory, since according to our declaration of co-ownership we have to provide our contact information and our email address to the board of directors. In addition, it is indicated that the register contains the email address of all co-owners. The Board claims right to respect for the private life to justifie this approach to communication. Question: Am I entitled to require the Board of directors to provide me with the email address of the co-owners? 
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The desire to preserve the safety of people and property can lead both syndicates and co-owners to consider the installation of surveillance cameras in the building. However, the question of the legality of such installations raises several debates in co-ownership. It should be noted that surveillance cameras are used in many buildings, although they do not please everyone, especially the occupants of the building who claim the right to privacy. However, are surveillance cameras in a co-ownership legal? And if so, is there a procedure to follow?  
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  I live in a co-ownership where there are a few smokers, one of which is located directly below me. His smoke migrates into my apartment. I am worried of its effects on my health in the medium and long terms, as well as that of my spouse and those of my two children. Question: Can our syndicate compel these smokers to install an air freshener in their apartment?
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The powers of the syndicate are designed according to the collective interest of the co-owners and find their limits in respect of the individual rights of the co-owners guaranteed by the declaration of co-ownership and by the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms (e.g.: the inviolability of the home). These powers of the syndicate are based on four principles: the preservation of the immovable, the administration of the common portions, the protection of the collective rights and the amendments to the declaration of co-ownership. For this, he must ensure the maintenance in good condition of use and enjoyment of all the common portions. The syndicate may also take legal action against a co-owner. The Civil Code of Quebec gives the syndicate of co-owners extensive powers to administer the co-ownership.
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The directors  of a co-ownership could, eventually, be called upon to enter the private portion of a co-owner. Article 1066 of the Civil Code of Québec obliges the co-owner, as well as his tenant or another occupant, to undergo work within his unit. This also includes justified pre-inspections for the conservation of the building and the safety of the occupants. Any co-owner will have to cooperate in such a situation. Although he as the complete use and enjoyment of his private portion, and no one can infringe upon his fundamental right, he must nevertheless allow access in certain circumstances. More particularly when the syndicate needs to carry out urgent or preservation work to ensure the conservation of the immovable.
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Le syndicat, dans le cadre de ses missions, doit autoriser, le cas échéant, tous travaux entrepris par des copropriétaires, que ce soient dans les parties privatives ou les parties communes à usage restreint. Les copropriétaires ne doivent pas oublier qu'en copropriété, certaines règles s'appliquent.
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